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Israeli Scientists Claim: American Astronauts And Alien Beings Collaborate In An Underground Base Located On Mars




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I’m giving you this information because it relates to a critical piece of information about the person making these strange and typically entertaining remarks. This isn’t your typical person; in fact, he or she acted as "the protector of interplanetary secrets," which is no laughing matter!

The most crucial piece of information is this. I’m Haim Eshed, a former director of Israel’s space security program and a retired general! In other words, this isn’t the...

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LHS 475 b is a rocky exoplanet roughly the same size as Earth that orbits very close to a small, dim star. And for the first time, researchers are able to study the planet’s atmosphere.

The James Webb Space Telescope has discovered its first new exoplanet, LHS 475 b, an Earth-sized rocky planet. The planet, which is only 41 light-years away, orbits very close to a small, dim star, completing a full orbit in just two days.

The discovery, announced at the American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting on Wednesday, January 11th, is notable because most exoplanets discovered are large gas giants similar to Jupiter. Most telescopes struggle to detect Earth-like planets because they are much smaller, at less than a tenth of the diameter.

The planet orbits very close to a small, dim star

Previous research with NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, another space-based telescope launched in 2018 specifically to search for exoplanets, suggested that this system may contain a planetary candidate. Observations made by JWST in August and September 2022 confirmed the planet’s presence.

The fact that JWST detected this planet indicates that it will be able to detect more Earth-like planets in the future. Furthermore, it should be able to detect their atmospheres, which other telescopes are unable to do with planets of this size.

The ultimate goal of much current exoplanet research is to understand the atmospheres of exoplanets. Astronomers must study the atmospheres of planets in order to better understand whether they are habitable, as this can have a significant impact on factors such as surface temperature.JWST observed two transits of LHS 475 b (in which the planet passes in front of its host star, causing a temporary and very small dip in the star’s brightness), which both confirmed the presence of the planet and allowed the team to calculate its radius.

They also examined its atmosphere using a technique known as transmission spectroscopy, and while they couldn’t confirm what the atmosphere was, they were able to rule out several possibilities. According to the findings, the planet does not have a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere like Jupiter, nor does it have a pure methane atmosphere. It could possibly have a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere like Venus, or it could have no atmosphere at all — having had its atmosphere stripped away by its star.

"Over the next few years, and ultimately decades, the search for life on exoplanets will fundamentally rely on the detailed characterization of exoplanet atmospheres," said lead researcher Jacob Lustig-Yaeger of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory at the AAS meeting. "And the first step on this journey is simply to detect the presence of exoplanet atmospheres."

Even though JWST should be able to detect exoplanet atmospheres

, the task remains difficult. Because exoplanets are much smaller than stars and reflect much less light, they are rarely directly detected. Instead, astronomers examine host stars for small changes in brightness or motion that indicate the presence of a planet orbiting them.

This summer, the research team plans another JWST observation of the planet, which should help them learn more. And the study demonstrates how effective JWST is for learning about exoplanets:

"Even though we don’t detect an atmosphere in this case, our measurements meet the sensitivity requirements to be able to detect the atmospheres of Earth-sized planets. So it’s a really exciting time," Lustig-Yaeger said. "We’re just starting to scratch the surface of what is possible with JWST."

In the entire Universe, we know of only one planet capable of supporting life. That is the planet Earth. So, when we look for exoplanets that could support life, we look for a rocky exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star at a distance that is neither too hot nor too cold for liquid water on the surface.

To calculate the likelihood of life elsewhere in the Milky Way, one must first determine how many exoplanets exist that fit this description.

Now, with years of exoplanet-hunting data in the bag, astronomers have made a new calculation and determined there could be as many as 6 billion Earth-like planets orbiting Sun-like stars in the Milky Way.

"My calculations place an upper limit of 0.18 Earth-like planets per G-type star," said astronomer Michelle Kunimoto from the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada. (You may remember that Kunimoto discovered a whopping 17 exoplanets in Kepler data quite recently.)

"Estimating how common different kinds of planets are around different stars can provide important constraints on planet formation and evolution theories, and help optimise future missions dedicated to finding exoplanets."

As technology advances, the number of planets discovered outside the Solar System grows by leaps and bounds. We’ve confirmed 5,235 exoplanets so far, and the number is growing.

But that’s a drop in the bucket when you consider how many planets there could be out there. The Milky Way galaxy contains an estimated 100 to 400 billion stars, with approximately 7% of them being G-type main-sequence stars like our Sun.

However, the majority of the exoplanets discovered so far are large gas or ice giants like Jupiter or Neptune. We study the effects of planets on their stars because it is extremely difficult for us to see planets directly due to the enormous distances involved. Smaller, rocky planets, such as Earth and Mars, are more difficult to detect because their effects are much smaller, with a lower signal-to-noise ratio.So it’s quite possible that our galaxy contains many more Earth-like exoplanets than we’ve discovered so far. To account for these missing planets, the team used forward modeling to simulate data based on the model’s parameters, applying it to a catalog of 200,000 stars studied by the Kepler planet-hunting spacecraft.

"I started by simulating the full population of exoplanets around the stars Kepler searched," expounded the researcher in UBC’s press release.

"I marked each planet as ‘detected’ or ‘missed’ depending on how likely it was my planet search algorithm would have found them. Then, I compared the detected planets to my actual catalogue of planets. If the simulation produced a close match, then the initial population was likely a good representation of the actual population of planets orbiting those stars."

From this approach, Kunimoto and her UBC colleague, astronomer Jaymie Matthews, could estimate the number of Earth-like planets in the Milky Way. They defined these as between 0.75 and 1.5 times the mass of Earth, orbiting a G-type star at a distance between 0.99 and 1.7 astronomical units (AU, the distance between Earth and the Sun).

At the upper limit of the estimate of G-type stars in the galaxy – a figure that is also very hard to pin down – these calculations returned a maximum of 6 billion of such exoplanets.

While the scientists came up with an astounding number of hypothetical Earths, this does not necessarily imply the number of such planets exists or whether they have life similar to ours. However, this new estimate increases the likelihood that comparable worlds exist. Nasa’s Artemis 1 mission (finally), the inauguration of the James Webb Space Telescope, and the completion of China’s Tiangong space station.

2023 is set to be another busy year. Here are five of the most exciting missions to watch out for.

1. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

In April, the European Space Agency (Esa) is set to launch the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (Juice), in what will be Europe’s first dedicated robotic mission to Jupiter. Juice is due to reach the planet in July 2031 after performing an incredible flight path through the Solar System. The mission will enter into orbit around Jupiter and perform numerous flybys of its large icy moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

After four years of moon flybys, Juice will then enter into orbit around Ganymede, the largest moon in the Solar System – becoming the first spacecraft ever to reach orbit around the moon of another planet. The icy moons of Jupiter are interesting as they are all believed to host oceans of liquid water beneath their frozen surfaces. Europa, in particular, is regarded as one of the most likely abodes in the Solar System for extra-terrestrial life.

Juice will be equipped with ten scientific instruments including ice-penetrating radar to study the internal oceans. This use of radar is a practical first step in mapping the sub-surface oceans, paving the way for more exotic future missions involving submersible vehicles – some of which have already been put forward. The launch window runs from April 5 to April 25.

2. SpaceX Starship

Although no date has been announced by aerospace company SpaceX at the time of writing, the first orbital test flight of the super-heavy Starship spacecraft is highly anticipated to occur in early 2023. Starship will be the largest spacecraft capable of carrying humans from Earth to destinations in space (the International Space Station is larger, but it was assembled in space). It will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever to fly, capable of lifting 100 tonnes of cargo to low Earth orbit.

Starship is the collective name for a two-component system consisting of the Starship spacecraft (which carries the crew and cargo) and the Super Heavy rocket. The rocket component will lift Starship to some 65km altitude before separating and returning to Earth in a controlled landing. The upper Starship component will then use its own engines to push itself the rest of the way to orbit.

Several short test flights of the Starship portion of the system have been made with varying degrees of success. But the upcoming flight will be the first time the whole system will be used to reach space as one. This first orbital flight was originally scheduled to launch in September 2022, but has been delayed several times.

3. dearMoon

The long-awaited dearMoon project, which will take members of the public on a six-day trip around the Moon and back, is due for launch on Starship and was originally planned for 2023. The exact date will depend on the successful test of Starship, but has been on the books since 2018. It will be the first true deep space tourism launch.

Financed by business entrepreneur Yusaku Maezawa, a competition was set up to select eight members of the public (and an unknown number of crew) to join Maezawa on the trip – all completely paid for. The winners and criteria used have not been disclosed, although it is suspected the guests may be established or aspiring artists.

This mission will mark a big change in the way we think about space, as previously only astronauts picked using incredibly stringent criteria have been able to go into deep space (note: we are not counting brief 10-minute jaunts up to 100 km). A full trip of several days poses extreme risks, both in terms of health and engineering.

The success or failure of the dearMoon mission could affect whether deep space tourism becomes the next big thing, or it is relegated back to being a pipe-dream.

4. Asteroid explorer returns to Earth

The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security – Regolith Explorer, mercifully more commonly known as OSIRIS-REx, is a Nasa mission to near-Earth asteroid Bennu. A key goal of this robotic mission was to acquire samples of Bennu and return them to Earth for analysis.

OSIRIS-REx is now fast returning to Earth with up to a kilogram of precious asteroid samples stored aboard. If all goes well, the capsule will detach from the spacecraft, enter the Earth’s atmosphere and parachute to a soft landing in the deserts of Utah on September 24. Asteroid sample return has only been achieved once before, by the Japanese Space Agency’s Hayabusa 2 mission in 2020.

Five Space Exploration Missions to Look Out For in 2023Bennu the golden space rock NASA/Goddard/University of Arizona

Bennu is an approximately diamond-shaped world just half a kilometre in size, but has many interesting characteristics. It is believed to have broken off from a much larger asteroid in the first 10 million years of the Solar System. Some of the minerals detected within it have been altered by water, implying that Bennu’s ancient parent body possessed liquid water.

It also has an abundance of precious metals, including gold and platinum. Finally, Bennu is classed as a potentially hazardous object with a (very) small possibility of Earth impact in the next century.

5. India’s private space launch

While SpaceX is the most prominent private space launch company, there are many others developing their own series of launchers around the world. Skyroot Aerospace, which successfully launched its Vikram-S rocket in November 2022, is soon to become the first private Indian company to launch a satellite.

The rocket itself reached 90km in altitude, a distance that would need to be improved upon to get a constellation of satellites into orbit. Skyroot’s first satellite launch is planned for 2023, with a goal of undercutting the cost of private space launch rivals by producing its 3D-printed rockets in a matter of days. If successful, this could also provide a route for cheaper launches of scientific missions, enabling a faster rate of research.

Clearly, interest in the space sector remains high. With many bold advances and launches due in 2023, we are entering a new phase akin to the "Golden era" of space launches in the 1960s and ’70s.

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