Мобильный 1 Add news
March 2010
April 2010
May 2010June 2010July 2010
August 2010
September 2010October 2010
November 2010
December 2010
January 2011
February 2011March 2011April 2011May 2011June 2011July 2011August 2011September 2011October 2011November 2011December 2011January 2012February 2012March 2012April 2012May 2012June 2012July 2012August 2012September 2012October 2012November 2012December 2012January 2013February 2013March 2013April 2013May 2013June 2013July 2013August 2013September 2013October 2013November 2013December 2013January 2014February 2014March 2014April 2014May 2014June 2014July 2014August 2014September 2014October 2014November 2014December 2014January 2015February 2015March 2015April 2015May 2015June 2015July 2015August 2015September 2015October 2015November 2015December 2015January 2016February 2016March 2016April 2016May 2016June 2016July 2016August 2016September 2016October 2016November 2016December 2016January 2017February 2017March 2017April 2017May 2017June 2017July 2017August 2017September 2017October 2017November 2017December 2017January 2018February 2018March 2018April 2018May 2018June 2018July 2018August 2018September 2018October 2018November 2018December 2018January 2019February 2019March 2019April 2019May 2019June 2019July 2019August 2019September 2019October 2019November 2019December 2019January 2020February 2020March 2020April 2020May 2020June 2020July 2020August 2020September 2020October 2020November 2020December 2020January 2021February 2021March 2021April 2021May 2021June 2021July 2021August 2021September 2021October 2021November 2021December 2021January 2022February 2022March 2022April 2022May 2022June 2022July 2022
News Every Day |

Psychiatric Drugs Do Not Improve Disease or Reduce Mortality

According to psychiatrist Nassir Ghaemi, most psychiatric drugs are only effective at treating symptoms in the short term—like taking aspirin for pain—and don’t improve the long-term course of an illness or prevent hospitalization or mortality.

“Most psychiatric drugs have not been proven, in properly designed randomized trials, to improve the course of any illnesses they are purported to treat,” Ghaemi writes. “Specifically, they have not been shown to prevent hospitalization or extend life, as many clinicians believe.”

Ghaemi is a renowned psychiatrist based at Tufts University and Harvard Medical School. In addition to his medical degree, he also has graduate degrees in philosophy and public health. He specializes in depression and bipolar disorder research and has authored textbooks in various aspects of the field. His notable textbooks include A Clinician’s Guide to Statistics and Epidemiology in Mental Health, a textbook on Clinical Psychopharmacology, and Mood Disorders: A Practical Guide.

In his new article in Acta Scandinavica Psychiatrica, Ghaemi writes that disease-modifying treatments, as found in the rest of medicine, are concerned with improving the course of illness and preventing death. But psychiatry’s drugs are ineffective for this purpose—or even harmful.

His examples are psychiatry’s two mainstays of treatment, antidepressants and antipsychotics. For instance, he notes that antidepressant treatment increases suicide attempts, at least in some populations—and doesn’t decrease them in any:

 “It is well-known that standard antidepressants do not reduce overall suicide rates in so-called major depressive disorder (MDD), and in fact increase suicidal ideation and attempts in younger adults and children, based on randomized data,” he writes.

 Likewise, he notes that antipsychotics don’t improve the course of illness and instead have neurotoxic effects that reduce brain volume:

“In most studies of antipsychotics […] the course of illness remains chronic and deteriorating. It is not reversed with long-term antipsychotic treatment. Pathophysiologically, antipsychotics, both older and newer, have a neurotoxic effect in reduction of brain volume with long-term treatment.”

Ghaemi writes that the main difference between psychiatry and the rest of medicine is that psychiatry’s drugs are symptomatic—treating only the symptoms in the short term—while the rest of medicine involves disease-modifying drugs, which improve the course of the illness and reduce outcomes like hospitalization and death.

“Most psychiatric medications are purely symptomatic, with no known or proven effect on the underlying disease. They are like 50 variations of aspirin, used for fever or headache, rather than drugs that treat the causes of fever or headache,” Ghaemi writes.

For comparison, he notes that research in psychiatry focuses on symptom reduction. In contrast, in other fields of medicine, symptom reduction is not the concern—instead, hospitalization and death are more important. He compares drug development in heart disease with psychiatry:

“For new drugs in cardiovascular disease, researchers do not bother to measure chest pain or dyspnea. They simply measure time to myocardial infarction, or mortality […] In psychiatry, we measure symptoms of depression and anxiety and psychosis as primary outcomes […] studies usually do not even measure time to hospitalization, and mortality is not even on the radar.”

He adds that some drugs for heart disease, such as antihypertensives, don’t improve any symptoms in the short term, but they do successfully improve the overall course of the disease, helping people to live longer and suffer fewer heart attacks.

This, he writes, is because these drugs act on the actual biological pathways that cause the disease. But psychiatry’s drugs don’t do that:

“Biologically, antipsychotics are mainly dopamine blockers and standard antidepressants are mainly monoamine agonists. After their introduction in the 1960s, corresponding theories arose regarding the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and the monoamine [serotonin] hypothesis for depression. Half a century of research has disproven these hypotheses: dopamine overactivity and monoamine depletion are not parts of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and depression, respectively.”
He adds, “Hence, from a biological perspective, antipsychotics and antidepressants are not disease-modifying drugs.”

This would be acceptable if they had a clinical effect—even if the biological pathway was unknown, if the drugs successfully saved lives or prevented worsening illness, they would be successful. But, he writes:

“A consensus of schizophrenia experts has reviewed the current literature and concluded that antipsychotics do not worsen the course of schizophrenia, but they were not able to show that these agents improve that course either.”
And, for antidepressants, he adds, “the FDA meta-analysis found no benefit with antidepressants versus placebo after 6 months of treatment.”

Ghaemi goes on to take issue with the poor validity of psychiatric diagnoses, mainly as they are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; now in its revised fifth edition).

“The process of defining DSM-5 definitions has been influenced heavily by non-scientific factors, and has not proven successful in biological and pharmacological research,” he writes. “However, the APA is fully committed to the DSM-5 ideology, and unwilling to allow more scientific approaches to diagnosis. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has acknowledged this problem, and no longer uses DSM criteria for biological research.”

According to Ghaemi, one exception to the rule of psychiatry’s ineffective drugs is lithium.

“Only lithium has been proven to improve the course of any psychiatric illness. Further only lithium has been proven to prevent completed suicide in randomized clinical trials in psychiatry […] It is the only drug in psychiatry which is proven to be disease-modifying.”

Thus, Ghaemi argues, “Current psychiatric drug development has failed and will not succeed for structural reasons.” However, he writes that lithium has better evidence of improving the actual course of illness and preventing suicide, and thus “should be used more frequently and consistently than is current practice.”



Ghaemi, S. N. (2022). Symptomatic versus disease-modifying effects of psychiatric drugs. Acta Psychiatric Scandinavica. Published online June 2, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1111/acps.13459 (Link)

Read also

TX WFO AMARILLO Warnings, Watches, and Advisories

20 TV shows like ‘Yellowstone’ to watch in the off-season

A guide to the pet deals we're expecting for Prime Day 2022 — plus early discounts happening now

Прямой эфир РБК. Главные новости России и мира сегодня (Прямой эфир ежедневно)

News, articles, comments, with a minute-by-minute update, now on Today24.pro

News Every Day

Lonnie Walker to Lakers

Today24.pro — latest news 24/7. You can add your news instantly now — here

News Every Day

Lonnie Walker to Lakers

Sports today

Новости тенниса
Рафаэль Надаль

Тренер Надаля: Пока Рафа борется за "Большие шлемы", он будет играть. Ему нравится соревноваться

Спорт в России и мире

Спортсменка комплекса «Воробьевы горы» завоевала золото на Кубке Москвы по плаванию


All sports news today


Sports in Russia today


UFC 276: Исраэль Адесанья — Джаред Каннонье, Волкановски — Холлоуэй, прямой эфир, где смотреть онлайн-трансляцию боя

Новости России

Game News

Вильфанд предупредил об аномальной жаре в Москве в начале июля



За 10 лет в ТиНАО и на прилегающих территориях построено и реконструировано 335 км дорог

Губернаторы России
Владимир Путин

Путин - Раиси: отношения Москвы и Тегерана носят глубокий, стратегический характер

КБГУ и ЛГПУ утвердили совместные образовательные программы

Колумнист Newsweek написала о возможности начала войны между Россией и США в Сирии

Мумие для здорового питания

Newsweek указало на опасность столкновения США и России в Сирии

Звёздные артисты поют для «солнечных» детей: Прохор Шаляпин, Эвелина Блёданс, Наташа Королёва, Михаил Гребенщиков в новом детском спектакле «Осторожно – улица!»

Стало известно о возвращении Моргенштерна в Россию

Киркоров показал, как поздравил сына с 10-летием

Певец Данко заявил о попытках спрятаться в лесу от Цискаридзе с кислотой

"рада, что смогла сыграть с ней последний матч". Симона Халеп попрощалась с Кирстен Флипкенс

Специальный показ фильма «Андрей Рублев» пройдет в «Коломенском» 8 июля

Роберто Баутиста-Агут отдал сопернику четыре гейма на старте Уимблдона

Тренер Надаля: Пока Рафа борется за "Большие шлемы", он будет играть. Ему нравится соревноваться

Собянин открыл движение по новым эстакадам в ТиНАО

За 10 лет в ТиНАО построено и реконструировано 10 очистных сооружений

Собянин рассказал о стремительном развитии Новой Москвы

Московские врачи за сутки вылечили 226 человек от коронавируса

Адвокат Марка Фогеля: «С таким набором медицинских карт очень тяжело жить даже на свободе»

Том Круз, Брюс Уиллис и самые крутые киногерои – в эти выходные на ТВ-3

«Шатунов это заслужил»: продюсер Лавров о присвоении звания «народный» артист

Звёздные артисты поют для «солнечных» детей: Прохор Шаляпин, Эвелина Блёданс, Наташа Королёва, Михаил Гребенщиков в новом детском спектакле «Осторожно – улица!»

За 10 лет в ТиНАО построено и реконструировано 10 очистных сооружений

Посетители парков в 22 округах Подмосковья смогут проверить здоровье

Выпускница из Московской области получила на ЕГЭ 300 баллов

Выпускница Подмосковья набрала 300 баллов на ЕГЭ

Путин в России и мире

Персональные новости

Александр Розенбаум

Розенбаум прокомментировал бегство Пугачевой из России

News Every Day

Christian Thun faces Curtis Harper on July 9 ProBoxTV card in Florida

Friends of Today24

Музыкальные новости
"Воскресенье " Олег Митяев

Персональные новости
Близкий друг Путина миллиардер Пугачев. Вся правда о Путине, его семье и деньгах. В гостях у Гордона (2021)

Навальный об уволенном за пост священнике (2021)

Slava Marlow – суперуспех и депрессия в 21 год / вДудь (2021)

Обнаглевшие дети путинской элиты (2021)

Дайте собакам мяса (новый звук) -Владимир Высоцкий

Группа "Рождество" - песня "Так хочется жить!" (Видео с концерта в Киеве группы "РОЖДЕСТВО" в 2011 году в Доме офицеров)

Adriano Celentano Любимая песня Челентано (высочайшая энергетика) talentTV